Chapter 12—Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Table of Contents
Terms and Definitions
Operation of Systems
Flight Director / Autopilot
Alternator / Generator
Nose Baggage Compartment
Anti-Icing / Deicing
Performance and Limitations
Weight and Balance
Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb
Level Off and Cruise
Normal Approach and Landing
Crosswind Approach and Landing
Short-Field Takeoff and Climb
Short-Field Approach and Landing
Engine Failure After Lift-Off
Engine Failure During Flight
Engine Inoperative Approach Landing
Engine Inoperative Flight Principles
Power-Off Stalls (Approach and Landing)
Power-On Stalls (Takeoff and Departure)
Engine Inoperative—Loss of Directional Control Demonstration
Multiengine Training Considerations
No multiengine airplane is approved for spins, and their spin recovery characteristics are generally very poor. It is therefore necessary to practice spin avoidance and maintain a high awareness of situations that can result in an inadvertent spin.
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In order to spin any airplane, it must first be stalled. At the stall, a yawing moment must be introduced. In a multiengine airplane, the yawing moment may be generated by rudder input or asymmetrical thrust. It follows, then, that spin awareness be at its greatest during VMC demonstrations, stall practice, slow flight, or any condition of high asymmetrical thrust, particularly at low speed/high angle of attack. Single- engine stalls are not part of any multiengine training curriculum.
A situation that may inadvertently degrade into a spin entry is a simulated engine failure introduced at an inappropriately low speed. No engine failure should ever be introduced below safe, intentional one-engineinoperative speed (VSSE). If no VSSE is published, use VYSE. The “necessity” of simulating engine failures at low airspeeds is erroneous. Other than training situations, the multiengine airplane is only operated below VSSE for mere seconds just after lift-off or during the last few dozen feet of altitude in preparation for landing.
For spin avoidance when practicing engine failures, the flight instructor should pay strict attention to the maintenance of proper airspeed and bank angle as the student executes the appropriate procedure. The instructor should also be particularly alert during stall and slow flight practice. Forward center-of-gravity positions result in favorable stall and spin avoidance characteristics, but do not eliminate the hazard.
When performing a VMC demonstration, the instructor should also be alert for any sign of an impending stall. The student may be highly focused on the directional control aspect of the maneuver to the extent that impending stall indications go unnoticed. If a VMC demonstration cannot be accomplished under existing conditions of density altitude, it may, for training purposes, be done utilizing the rudder blocking technique described in the following section.
As very few twins have ever been spin-tested (none are required to), the recommended spin recovery techniques are based only on the best information available. The departure from controlled flight may be quite abrupt and possibly disorienting. The direction of an upright spin can be confirmed from the turn needle or the symbolic airplane of the turn coordinator, if necessary. Do not rely on the ball position or other instruments.
If a spin is entered, most manufacturers recommend immediately retarding both throttles to idle, applying full rudder opposite the direction of rotation, and applying full forward elevator/stabilator pressure (with ailerons neutral). These actions should be taken as near simultaneously as possible. The controls should then be held in that position. Recovery, if possible, will take considerable altitude. The longer the delay from entry until taking corrective action, the less likely that recovery will be successful.