Chapter 12—Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Table of Contents
Terms and Definitions
Operation of Systems
Flight Director / Autopilot
Alternator / Generator
Nose Baggage Compartment
Anti-Icing / Deicing
Performance and Limitations
Weight and Balance
Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb
Level Off and Cruise
Normal Approach and Landing
Crosswind Approach and Landing
Short-Field Takeoff and Climb
Short-Field Approach and Landing
Engine Failure After Lift-Off
Engine Failure During Flight
Engine Inoperative Approach Landing
Engine Inoperative Flight Principles
Power-Off Stalls (Approach and Landing)
Power-On Stalls (Takeoff and Departure)
Engine Inoperative—Loss of Directional Control Demonstration
Multiengine Training Considerations
The yaw damper is a servo that moves the rudder in response to inputs from a gyroscope or accelerometer that detects yaw rate. The yaw damper minimizes motion about the vertical axis caused by turbulence. (Yaw dampers on sweptwing airplanes provide another, more vital function of damping dutch roll characteristics.) Occupants will feel a smoother ride, particularly if seated in the rear of the airplane, when the yaw damper is engaged. The yaw damper should be off for takeoff and landing. There may be additional restrictions against its use during single-engine operation. Most yaw dampers can be engaged independently of the autopilot.
Alternator or generator paralleling circuitry matches the output of each engine’s alternator/generator so that the electrical system load is shared equally between them. In the event of an alternator/generator failure, the inoperative unit can be isolated and the entire electrical system powered from the remaining one. Depending upon the electrical capacity of the alternator/ generator, the pilot may need to reduce the electrical load (referred to as load shedding) when operating on a single unit. The AFM/POH will contain system description and limitations.
NOSE BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT
Nose baggage compartments are common on multiengine airplanes (and are even found on a few single-engine airplanes). There is nothing strange or exotic about a nose baggage compartment, and the usual guidance concerning observation of load limits applies. They are mentioned here in that pilots occasionally neglect to secure the latches properly, and therein lies the danger. When improperly secured, the door will open and the contents may be drawn out, usually into the propeller arc, and usually just after takeoff. Even when the nose baggage compartment is empty, airplanes have been lost when the pilot became distracted by the open door. Security of the nose baggage compartment latches and locks is a vital preflight item.
Most airplanes will continue to fly with a nose baggage door open. There may be some buffeting from the disturbed airflow and there will be an increase in noise. Pilots should never become so preoccupied with an open door (of any kind) that they fail to fly the airplane.
Inspection of the compartment interior is also an important preflight item. More than one pilot has been surprised to find a supposedly empty compartment packed to capacity or loaded with ballast. The tow bars, engine inlet covers, windshield sun screens, oil containers, spare chocks, and miscellaneous small hand tools that find their way into baggage compartments should be secured to prevent damage from shifting in flight.
Anti-icing/deicing equipment is frequently installed on multiengine airplanes and consists of a combination of different systems. These may be classified as either anti-icing or deicing, depending upon function. The presence of anti-icing and deicing equipment, even though it may appear elaborate and complete, does not necessarily mean that the airplane is approved for flight in icing conditions. The AFM/POH, placards, and even the manufacturer should be consulted for specific determination of approvals and limitations.
Anti-icing equipment is provided to prevent ice from forming on certain protected surfaces. Anti-icing equipment includes heated pitot tubes, heated or non- icing static ports and fuel vents, propeller blades with electrothermal boots or alcohol slingers, windshields with alcohol spray or electrical resistance heating, windshield defoggers, and heated stall warning lift detectors. On many turboprop engines, the “lip” surrounding the air intake is heated either electrically or with bleed air. In the absence of AFM/POH guidance to the contrary, anti-icing equipment is actuated prior to flight into known or suspected icing conditions.
Deicing equipment is generally limited to pneumatic boots on wing and tail leading edges. Deicing equipment is installed to remove ice that has already formed on protected surfaces. Upon pilot actuation, the boots inflate with air from the pneumatic pumps to break off accumulated ice. After a few seconds of inflation, they are deflated back to their normal position with the assistance of a vacuum. The pilot monitors the buildup of ice and cycles the boots as directed in the AFM/POH. An ice light on the left engine nacelle allows the pilot to monitor wing ice accumulation at night.
Other airframe equipment necessary for flight in icing conditions includes an alternate induction air source and an alternate static system source. Ice tolerant antennas will also be installed.
In the event of impact ice accumulating over normal engine air induction sources, carburetor heat (carbureted engines) or alternate air (fuel injected engines) should be selected. Ice buildup on normal induction sources can be detected by a loss of engine r.p.m. with fixed-pitch propellers and a loss of manifold pressure with constant-speed propellers. On some fuel injected engines, an alternate air source is automatically activated with blockage of the normal air source.
An alternate static system provides an alternate source of static air for the pitot-static system in the unlikely event that the primary static source becomes blocked. In non-pressurized airplanes, most alternate static sources are plumbed to the cabin. On pressurized airplanes, they are usually plumbed to a non-pressurized baggage compartment. The pilot must activate the alternate static source by opening a valve or a fitting in the cockpit. Upon activation, the airspeed indicator, altimeter, and the vertical speed indicator (VSI) will be affected and will read somewhat in error. A correction table is frequently provided in the AFM/POH.
Anti-icing/deicing equipment only eliminates ice from the protected surfaces. Significant ice accumulations may form on unprotected areas, even with proper use of anti-ice and deice systems. Flight at high angles of attack or even normal climb speeds will permit significant ice accumulations on lower wing surfaces, which are unprotected. Many AFM/POHs mandate minimum speeds to be maintained in icing conditions. Degradation of all flight characteristics and large performance losses can be expected with ice accumulations. Pilots should not rely upon the stall warning devices for adequate stall warning with ice accumulations.
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Ice will accumulate unevenly on the airplane. It will add weight and drag (primarily drag), and decrease thrust and lift. Even wing shape affects ice accumulation; thin airfoil sections are more prone to ice accumulation than thick, highly-cambered sections. For this reason certain surfaces, such as the horizontal stabilizer, are more prone to icing than the wing. With ice accumulations, landing approaches should be made with a minimum wing flap setting (flap extension increases the angle of attack of the horizontal stabilizer) and with an added margin of airspeed. Sudden and large configuration and airspeed changes should be avoided.
Unless otherwise recommended in the AFM/POH, the autopilot should not be used in icing conditions. Continuous use of the autopilot will mask trim and handling changes that will occur with ice accumulation. Without this control feedback, the pilot may not be aware of ice accumulation building to hazardous levels. The autopilot will suddenly disconnect when it reaches design limits and the pilot may find the airplane has assumed unsatisfactory handling characteristics.
The installation of anti-ice/deice equipment on airplanes without AFM/POH approval for flight into icing conditions is to facilitate escape when such conditions are inadvertently encountered. Even with AFM/POH approval, the prudent pilot will avoid icing conditions to the maximum extent practicable, and avoid extended flight in any icing conditions. No multiengine airplane is approved for flight into severe icing conditions, and none are intended for indefinite flight in continuous icing conditions.
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