Chapter 12—Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Table of Contents
Terms and Definitions
Operation of Systems
Flight Director / Autopilot
Alternator / Generator
Nose Baggage Compartment
Anti-Icing / Deicing
Performance and Limitations
Weight and Balance
Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb
Level Off and Cruise
Normal Approach and Landing
Crosswind Approach and Landing
Short-Field Takeoff and Climb
Short-Field Approach and Landing
Engine Failure After Lift-Off
Engine Failure During Flight
Engine Inoperative Approach Landing
Engine Inoperative Flight Principles
Power-Off Stalls (Approach and Landing)
Power-On Stalls (Takeoff and Departure)
Engine Inoperative—Loss of Directional Control Demonstration
Multiengine Training Considerations
POWER-OFF STALLS (APPROACH AND LANDING)
Power-off stalls are practiced to simulate typical approach and landing scenarios. To initiate a power-off stall maneuver, the area surrounding the airplane should first be cleared for possible traffic. The airplane should then be slowed and configured for an approach and landing. A stabilized descent should be established (approximately 500 f.p.m.) and trim adjusted. The pilot should then transition smoothly from the stabilized descent attitude, to a pitch attitude that will induce a stall. Power is reduced further during this phase, and trimming should cease at speeds slower than takeoff.
When the airplane reaches a stalled condition, the recovery is accomplished by simultaneously reducing the angle of attack with coordinated use of the flight controls and smoothly applying takeoff or specified power. The flap setting should be reduced from full to approach, or as recommended by the manufacturer. Then with a positive rate of climb, the landing gear is selected up. The remaining flaps are then retracted as a climb has commenced. This recovery process should be completed with a minimum loss of altitude, appropriate to the aircraft characteristics.
The airplane should be accelerated to VX (if simulated obstacles are present) or VY during recovery and climb. Considerable forward elevator/stabilator pressure will be required after the stall recovery as the airplane accelerates to VX or VY. Appropriate trim input should be anticipated.
Power-off stalls may be performed with wings level, or from shallow and medium banked turns. When recovering from a stall performed from turning flight, the angle of attack should be reduced prior to leveling the wings. Flight control inputs should be coordinated. It is usually not advisable to execute full stalls in multiengine airplanes because of their relatively high wing loading. Stall training should be limited to approaches to stalls and when a stall condition occurs. Recoveries should be initiated at the onset, or decay of control effectiveness, or when the first physical indication of the stall occurs.