Chapter 15-Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Table of Contents
Jet Engine Basics
Operating the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Ignition
Thrust to Thrust Lever Relationship
Variation of Thrust with RPM
Slow Acceleration of the Jet Engine
Jet Engine Efficiency
Absence of Propeller Effect
Absence of Propeller Slipstream
Absence of Propeller Drag
Recovery from Overspeed Conditions
Mach Buffet Boundaries
Low Speed Flight
Pilot Sensations in Jet Flying
Jet Airplane Takeoff and Climb
Rotation and Lift-Off
Jet Airplane Approach and Landing
The Stabilized Approach
Touchdown and Rollout
JET ENGINE EFFICIENCY
Maximum operating altitudes for general aviation turbojet airplanes now reach 51,000 feet. The efficiency of the jet engine at high altitudes is the primary reason for operating in the high altitude environment. The specific fuel consumption of jet engines decreases as the outside air temperature decreases for constant engine r.p.m. and true airspeed (TAS). Thus, by flying at a high altitude, the pilot is able to operate at flight levels where fuel economy is best and with the most advantageous cruise speed. For efficiency, jet airplanes are typically operated at high altitudes where cruise is usually very close to r.p.m or exhaust gas temperature limits. At high altitudes, little excess thrust may be available for maneuvering. Therefore, it is often impossible for the jet airplane to climb and turn simultaneously, and all maneuvering must be accomplished within the limits of available thrust and without sacrificing stability and controllability.
ABSENCE OF PROPELLER EFFECT
The absence of a propeller has a significant effect on the operation of jet powered airplanes that the transitioning pilot must become accustomed to. The effect is due to the absence of lift from the propeller slipstream, and the absence of propeller drag.
ABSENCE OF PROPELLER SLIPSTREAM
A propeller produces thrust by accelerating a large mass of air rearwards, and (especially with wing mounted engines) this air passes over a comparatively large percentage of the wing area. On a propeller driven airplane, the lift that the wing develops is the sum of the lift generated by the wing area not in the wake of the propeller (as a result of airplane speed) and the lift generated by the wing area influenced by the propeller slipstream. By increasing or decreasing the speed of the slipstream air, therefore, it is possible to increase or decrease the total lift on the wing without changing airspeed.
For example, a propeller driven airplane that is allowed to become too low and too slow on an approach is very responsive to a quick blast of power to salvage the situation. In addition to increasing lift at a constant airspeed, stalling speed is reduced with power on. A jet engine, on the other hand, also produces thrust by accelerating a mass of air rearward, but this air does not pass over the wings. There is therefore no lift bonus at increased power at constant airspeed, and no significant lowering of power-on stall speed.
In not having propellers, the jet powered airplane is minus two assets.
Add the poor acceleration response of the jet engine and it becomes apparent that there are three ways in which the jet pilot is worse off than the propeller pilot. For these reasons, there is a marked difference between the approach qualities of a piston engine airplane and a jet. In a piston engine airplane, there is some room for error. Speed is not too critical and a burst of power will salvage an increasing sink rate. In a jet, however, there is little room for error.
If an increasing sink rate develops in a jet, the pilot must remember two points in the proper sequence.
Salvaging an increasing sink rate on an approach in a jet can be a very difficult maneuver. The lack of ability to produce instant lift in the jet, along with the slow acceleration of the engine, necessitates a “stabilized approach” to a landing where full landing configuration, constant airspeed, controlled rate of descent, and relatively high power settings are maintained until over the threshold of the runway. This allows for almost immediate response from the engine in making minor changes in the approach speed or rate of descent and makes it possible to initiate an immediate go-around or missed approach if necessary.
ABSENCE OF PROPELLER DRAG
When the throttles are closed on a piston powered airplane, the propellers create a vast amount of drag, and airspeed is immediately decreased or altitude lost. The effect of reducing power to idle on the jet engine, however, produces no such drag effect. In fact, at an idle power setting, the jet engine still produces forward thrust. The main advantage is that the jet pilot is no longer faced with a potential drag penalty of a runaway propeller, or a reversed propeller. A disadvantage, however, is the ôfree wheelingö effect forward thrust at idle has on the jet. While this occasionally can be used to advantage (such as in a long descent), it is a handicap when it is necessary to lose speed quickly, such as when entering a terminal area or when in a landing flare. The lack of propeller drag, along with the aerodynamically clean airframe of the jet, are new to most pilots, and slowing the airplane down is one of the initial problems encountered by pilots transitioning into jets.