Chapter 4—Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Table of Contents
Flight at Less than Cruise Airspeeds
Flight at Minimum Controllable Airspeed
Recognition of Stalls
Fundamentals of Stall Recovery
Use of Ailerons/Rudder in Stall Recovery
Approaches to Stalls (Imminent Stalls)—Power-On or Power-Off
Full Stalls Power-Off
Full Stalls Power-On
Elevator Trim Stall
Weight and Balance Requirements
WEIGHT AND BALANCE REQUIREMENTS
With each airplane that is approved for spinning, the weight and balance requirements are important for safe performance and recovery from the spin maneuver. Pilots must be aware that just minor weight or balance changes can affect the airplane’s spin recovery characteristics. Such changes can either alter or enhance the spin maneuver and/or recovery characteristics. For example, the addition of weight in the aft baggage compartment, or additional fuel, may still permit the airplane to be operated within CG, but could seriously affect the spin and recovery characteristics.
An airplane that may be difficult to spin intentionally in the Utility Category (restricted aft CG and reduced weight) could have less resistance to spin entry in the Normal Category (less restricted aft CG and increased weight). This situation is due to the airplane being able to generate a higher angle of attack and load factor. Furthermore, an airplane that is approved for spins in the Utility Category, but loaded in the Normal Category, may not recover from a spin that is allowed to progress beyond the incipient phase.
Common errors in the performance of intentional spins are: