Chapter 4—Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Table of Contents
Flight at Less than Cruise Airspeeds
Flight at Minimum Controllable Airspeed
Recognition of Stalls
Fundamentals of Stall Recovery
Use of Ailerons/Rudder in Stall Recovery
Approaches to Stalls (Imminent Stalls)—Power-On or Power-Off
Full Stalls Power-Off
Full Stalls Power-On
Elevator Trim Stall
Weight and Balance Requirements
The incipient phase is from the time the airplane stalls and rotation starts until the spin has fully developed. This change may take up to two turns for most airplanes. Incipient spins that are not allowed to develop into a steady-state spin are the most commonly used in the introduction to spin training and recovery techniques. In this phase, the aerodynamic and inertial forces have not achieved a balance. As the incipient spin develops, the indicated airspeed should be near or below stall airspeed, and the turn-and-slip indicator should indicate the direction of the spin.
The incipient spin recovery procedure should be commenced prior to the completion of 360° of rotation. The pilot should apply full rudder opposite the direction of rotation. If the pilot is not sure of the direction of the spin, check the turn-and-slip indicator; it will show a deflection in the direction of rotation.
Figure 4-10b. Spin-Fully Developed.