Chapter 16 Emergency Procedures
Table of Contents
Types of Emergency Landings
Basic Safety Concepts
Attitude and Sink Rate Control
Water (Ditching) and Snow
Engine Failure After Takeoff (Single-Engine)
Flight Control Malfunction / Failure
Total Flap Failure
Asymmetric (Split) Flap
Loss of Elevator Control
Landing Gear Malfunction
Abnormal Engine Instrument Indications
Door Opening In Flight
Inadvertent VFR Flight Into IMC
Maintaining Airplane Control
Transition to Visual Flight
Since an emergency landing on suitable terrain resembles a situation in which the pilot should be familiar through training, only the more unusual situation will be discussed.
The natural preference to set the airplane down on the ground should not lead to the selection of an open spot between trees or obstacles where the ground cannot be reached without making a steep descent.
Once the intended touchdown point is reached, and the remaining open and unobstructed space is very limited, it may be better to force the airplane down on the ground than to delay touchdown until it stalls (settles). An airplane decelerates faster after it is on the ground than while airborne. Thought may also be given to the desirability of ground-looping or retracting the landing gear in certain conditions.
A river or creek can be an inviting alternative in otherwise rugged terrain. The pilot should ensure that the water or creek bed can be reached without snagging the wings. The same concept applies to road landings with one additional reason for caution; manmade obstacles on either side of a road may not be visible until the final portion of the approach.16-4
When planning the approach across a road, it should be remembered that most highways, and even rural dirt roads, are paralleled by power or telephone lines. Only a sharp lookout for the supporting structures, or poles, may provide timely warning.TREES (FOREST) Although a tree landing is not an attractive prospect, the following general guidelines will help to make the experience survivable.
Figure 16-4. Tree landing.
WATER (DITCHING) AND SNOW
A well-executed water landing normally involves less deceleration violence than a poor tree landing or a touchdown on extremely rough terrain. Also an airplane that is ditched at minimum speed and in a normal landing attitude will not immediately sink upon touchdown. Intact wings and fuel tanks (especially when empty) provide floatation for at least several minutes even if the cockpit may be just below the water line in a high-wing airplane.Ch 16.qxd 5/7/04 10:30 AM Page 16-5
Loss of depth perception may occur when landing on a wide expanse of smooth water, with the risk of flying into the water or stalling in from excessive altitude. To avoid this hazard, the airplane should be “dragged in” when possible. Use no more than intermediate flaps on low-wing airplanes. The water resistance of fully extended flaps may result in asymmetrical flap failure and slowing of the airplane. Keep a retractable gear up unless the AFM/POH advises otherwise.
A landing in snow should be executed like a ditching, in the same configuration and with the same regard for loss of depth perception (white out) in reduced visibility and on wide open terrain.