Chapter 16 Emergency Procedures
Table of Contents
Types of Emergency Landings
Basic Safety Concepts
Attitude and Sink Rate Control
Water (Ditching) and Snow
Engine Failure After Takeoff (Single-Engine)
Flight Control Malfunction / Failure
Total Flap Failure
Asymmetric (Split) Flap
Loss of Elevator Control
Landing Gear Malfunction
Abnormal Engine Instrument Indications
Door Opening In Flight
Inadvertent VFR Flight Into IMC
Maintaining Airplane Control
Transition to Visual Flight
Ch 16.qxd 5/7/04 10:30 AM Page 16-1
This chapter contains information on dealing with non-normal and emergency situations that may occur in flight. The key to successful management of an emergency situation, and/or preventing a non-normal situation from progressing into a true emergency, is a thorough familiarity with, and adherence to, the procedures developed by the airplane manufacturer and contained in the FAA-approved Airplane Flight Manual and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook (AFM/POH). The following guidelines are generic and are not meant to replace the airplane manufacturer’s recommended procedures. Rather, they are meant to enhance the pilot’s general knowledge in the area of non-normal and emergency operations. If any of the guidance in this chapter conflicts in any way with the manufacturer’s recommended procedures for a particular make and model airplane, the manufacturer’s recommended procedures take precedence.
This section contains information on emergency landing techniques in small fixed-wing airplanes. The guidelines that are presented apply to the more adverse terrain conditions for which no practical training is possible. The objective is to instill in the pilot the knowledge that almost any terrain can be considered “suitable” for a survivable crash landing if the pilot knows how to use the airplane structure for self-protection and the protection of passengers.
TYPES OF EMERGENCY LANDINGS
The different types of emergency landings are defined as follows.
A precautionary landing, generally, is less hazardous than a forced landing because the pilot has more time for terrain selection and the planning of the approach. In addition, the pilot can use power to compensate for errors in judgment or technique. The pilot should be aware that too many situations calling for a precautionary landing are allowed to develop into immediate forced landings, when the pilot uses wishful thinking instead of reason, especially when dealing with a self-inflicted predicament. The non-instrument rated pilot trapped by weather, or the pilot facing imminent fuel exhaustion who does not give any thought to the feasibility of a precautionary landing accepts an extremely hazardous alternative.
There are several factors that may interfere with a pilot’s ability to act promptly and properly when faced with an emergency.