11—Transition to Complex Airplanes
Table of Contents
High Performance and Complex Airplanes
Function of Flaps
Takeoff, Climb, and Cruise
Blade Angle Control
Constant-Speed Propeller Operation
Ground Boosting vs. Altitude Turbocharging
Low Manifold Pressure
Retractable Landing Gear
Landing Gear Systems
Controls and Position Indicators
Landing Gear Safety Devices
Emergency Gear Extension Systems
Operational Procedures PreFlight
Takeoff and Climb
Approach and Landing
The turbocharged engine allows the pilot to maintain sufficient cruise power at high altitudes where there is less drag, which means faster true airspeeds and increased range with fuel economy. At the same time, the powerplant has flexibility and can be flown at a low altitude without the increased fuel consumption of a turbine engine. When attached to the standard powerplant, the turbocharger does not take any horsepower from the powerplant to operate; it is relatively simple mechanically, and some models can pressurize the cabin as well.
The turbocharger is an exhaust-driven device, which raises the pressure and density of the induction air delivered to the engine. It consists of two separate components: a compressor and a turbine connected by a common shaft. The compressor supplies pressurized air to the engine for high altitude operation. The compressor and its housing are between the ambient air intake and the induction air manifold. The turbine and its housing are part of the exhaust system and utilize the flow of exhaust gases to drive the compressor. [Figure 11-5]
Figure 11-5. Turbocharging system.
The turbine has the capability of producing manifold pressure in excess of the maximum allowable for the particular engine. In order not to exceed the maximum allowable manifold pressure, a bypass or waste gate is used so that some of the exhaust will be diverted overboard before it passes through the turbine.
The position of the waste gate regulates the output of the turbine and therefore, the compressed air available to the engine. When the waste gate is closed, all of the exhaust gases pass through and drive the turbine. As the waste gate opens, some of the exhaust gases are routed around the turbine, through the exhaust bypass and overboard through the exhaust pipe.
The waste gate actuator is a spring-loaded piston, operated by engine oil pressure. The actuator, which adjusts the waste gate position, is connected to the waste gate by a mechanical linkage.
The control center of the turbocharger system is the pressure controller. This device simplifies turbocharging to one control: the throttle. Once the pilot has set the desired manifold pressure, virtually no throttle adjustment is required with changes in altitude. The controller senses compressor discharge requirements for various altitudes and controls the oil pressure to the waste gate actuator which adjusts the waste gate accordingly. Thus the turbocharger maintains only the manifold pressure called for by the throttle setting.
GROUND BOOSTING VS. ALTITUDE TURBOCHARGING
Altitude turbocharging (sometimes called “normalizing”) is accomplished by using a turbocharger that will maintain maximum allowable sea level manifold pressure (normally 29 – 30 inches Hg) up to a certain altitude. This altitude is specified by the airplane manufacturer and is referred to as the airplane’s critical altitude. Above the critical altitude, the manifold pressure decreases as additional altitude is gained. Ground boosting, on the other hand, is an application of turbocharging where more than the standard 29 inches of manifold pressure is used in flight. In various airplanes using ground boosting, takeoff manifold pressures may go as high as 45 inches of mercury.
Although a sea level power setting and maximum r.p.m. can be maintained up to the critical altitude, this does not mean that the engine is developing sea level power. Engine power is not determined just by manifold pressure and r.p.m. Induction air temperature is also a factor. Turbocharged induction air is heated by compression. This temperature rise decreases induction air density which causes a power loss. Maintaining the equivalent horsepower output will require a somewhat higher manifold pressure at a given altitude than if the induction air were not compressed by turbocharging. If, on the other hand, the system incorporates an automatic density controller which, instead of maintaining a constant manifold pressure, automatically positions the waste gate so as to maintain constant air density to the engine, a near constant horsepower output will result.
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First and foremost, all movements of the power controls on turbocharged engines should be slow and gentle. Aggressive and/or abrupt throttle movements increase the possibility of overboosting. The pilot should carefully monitor engine indications when making power changes.
When the waste gate is open, the turbocharged engine will react the same as a normally aspirated engine when the r.p.m. is varied. That is, when the r.p.m. is increased, the manifold pressure will decrease slightly. When the engine r.p.m. is decreased, the manifold pressure will increase slightly. However, when the waste gate is closed, manifold pressure variation with engine r.p.m. is just the opposite of the normally aspirated engine. An increase in engine r.p.m. will result in an increase in manifold pressure, and a decrease in engine r.p.m. will result in a decrease in manifold pressure.
Above the critical altitude, where the waste gate is closed, any change in airspeed will result in a corresponding change in manifold pressure. This is true because the increase in ram air pressure with an increase in airspeed is magnified by the compressor resulting in an increase in manifold pressure. The increase in manifold pressure creates a higher mass flow through the engine, causing higher turbine speeds and thus further increasing manifold pressure.
When running at high altitudes, aviation gasoline may tend to vaporize prior to reaching the cylinder. If this occurs in the portion of the fuel system between the fuel tank and the engine-driven fuel pump, an auxiliary positive pressure pump may be needed in the tank. Since engine-driven pumps pull fuel, they are easily vapor locked. A boost pump provides positive pressure—pushes the fuel—reducing the tendency to vaporize.
Turbocharged engines must be thoughtfully and carefully operated, with continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures. There are two temperatures that are especially important—turbine inlet temperature (TIT) or in some installations exhaust gas temperature (EGT), and cylinder head temperature. TIT or EGT limits are set to protect the elements in the hot section of the turbocharger, while cylinder head temperature limits protect the engine’s internal parts.
Due to the heat of compression of the induction air, a turbocharged engine runs at higher operating temperatures than a non-turbocharged engine. Because turbocharged engines operate at high altitudes, their environment is less efficient for cooling. At altitude the air is less dense and therefore, cools less efficiently. Also, the less dense air causes the compressor to work harder. Compressor turbine speeds can reach 80,000 – 100,000 r.p.m., adding to the overall engine operating temperatures. Turbocharged engines are also operated at higher power settings a greater portion of the time.
High heat is detrimental to piston engine operation. Its cumulative effects can lead to piston, ring, and cylinder head failure, and place thermal stress on other operating components. Excessive cylinder head temperature can lead to detonation, which in turn can cause catastrophic engine failure. Turbocharged engines are especially heat sensitive. The key to turbocharger operation, therefore, is effective heat management.
The pilot monitors the condition of a turbocharged engine with manifold pressure gauge, tachometer, exhaust gas temperature/turbine inlet temperature gauge, and cylinder head temperature. The pilot manages the “heat system” with the throttle, propeller r.p.m., mixture, and cowl flaps. At any given cruise power, the mixture is the most influential control over the exhaust gas/turbine inlet temperature. The throttle regulates total fuel flow, but the mixture governs the fuel to air ratio. The mixture, therefore, controls temperature.
Exceeding temperature limits in an after takeoff climb is usually not a problem since a full rich mixture cools with excess fuel. At cruise, however, the pilot normally reduces power to 75 percent or less and simultaneously adjusts the mixture. Under cruise conditions, temperature limits should be monitored most closely because it’s there that the temperatures are most likely to reach the maximum, even though the engine is producing less power. Overheating in an enroute climb, however, may require fully open cowl flaps and a higher airspeed.
Since turbocharged engines operate hotter at altitude than do normally aspirated engines, they are more prone to damage from cooling stress. Gradual reductions in power, and careful monitoring of temperatures are essential in the descent phase. The pilot may find it helpful to lower the landing gear to give the engine something to work against while power is reduced and provide time for a slow cool down. It may also be necessary to lean the mixture slightly to eliminate roughness at the lower power settings.
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Because of the high temperatures and pressures produced in the turbine exhaust systems, any malfunction of the turbocharger must be treated with extreme caution. In all cases of turbocharger operation, the manufacturer’s recommended procedures should be followed. This is especially so in the case of turbocharger malfunction. However, in those instances where the manufacturer’s procedures do not adequately describe the actions to be taken in the event of a turbocharger failure, the following procedures should be used.
If an excessive rise in manifold pressure occurs during normal advancement of the throttle (possibly owing to faulty operation of the waste gate):
LOW MANIFOLD PRESSURE
Although this condition may be caused by a minor fault, it is quite possible that a serious exhaust leak has occurred creating a potentially hazardous situation:
It is very important to ensure that corrective maintenance is undertaken following any turbocharger malfunction.