Chapter 3—Basic Flight Maneuvers
Table of Contents
The Four Fundamentals
Effects and Use of the Controls
Feel of the Airplane
Integrated Flight Instruction
Climbs and Climbing Turns
Best Rate of Climb
Best Angle of Climb
Descents and Descending Turns
Partial Power Descent
Descent at Minimum Safe Airspeed
Pitch and Power
INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION
When introducing basic flight maneuvers to a beginning pilot, it is recommended that the “Integrated” or “Composite” method of flight instruction be used. This means the use of outside references and flight instruments to establish and maintain desired flight attitudes and airplane performance. [Figure 3-2] When beginning pilots use this technique, they achieve a more precise and competent overall piloting ability. Although this method of airplane control may become second nature with experience, the beginning pilot must make a determined effort to master the technique. The basic elements of which are as follows.
Figure 3-2. Integrated or composite method of flight instruction.
The pilot should become familiar with the relationship between outside references to the natural horizon and the corresponding indications on flight instruments inside the cockpit. For example, a pitch attitude adjustment may require a movement of the pilot’s reference point on the airplane of several inches in relation to the natural horizon, but correspond to a small fraction of an inch movement of the reference bar on the airplane’s attitude indicator. Similarly, a deviation from desired bank, which is very obvious when referencing the wingtip’s position relative to the natural horizon, may be nearly imperceptible on the airplane’s attitude indicator to the beginning pilot.
The use of integrated flight instruction does not, and is not intended to prepare pilots for flight in instrument weather conditions. The most common error made by the beginning student is to make pitch or bank corrections while still looking inside the cockpit. Control pressure is applied, but the beginning pilot, not being familiar with the intricacies of flight by references to instruments, including such things as instrument lag and gyroscopic precession, will invariably make excessive attitude corrections and end up “chasing the instruments.” Airplane attitude by reference to the natural horizon, however, is immediate in its indications, accurate, and presented many times larger than any instrument could be. Also, the beginning pilot must be made aware that anytime, for whatever reason, airplane attitude by reference to the natural horizon cannot be established and/or maintained, the situation should be considered a bona fide emergency.