Chapter 14—Transition to Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes
Table of Contents
The Gas Turbine Engine
Turboprop Engine Types
Split-Shaft / Free Turbine Engine
Reverse Thrust and Beta Range Operations
Turboprop Airplane Electrical Systems
The turbojet engine excels the reciprocating engine in top speed and altitude performance. On the other hand, the turbojet engine has limited takeoff and initial climb performance, as compared to that of a reciprocating engine. In the matter of takeoff and initial climb performance, the reciprocating engine is superior to the turbojet engine. Turbojet engines are most efficient at high speeds and high altitudes, while propellers are most efficient at slow and medium speeds (less than 400 m.p.h.). Propellers also improve takeoff and climb performance. The development of the turboprop engine was an attempt to combine in one engine the best characteristics of both the turbojet, and propeller driven reciprocating engine.
The turboprop engine offers several advantages over other types of engines such as:
Turboprop engines are most efficient at speeds between 250 and 400 m.p.h. and altitudes between 18,000 and 30,000 feet. They also perform well at the slow speeds required for takeoff and landing, and are fuel efficient. The minimum specific fuel consumption of the turboprop engine is normally available in the altitude range of 25,000 feet up to the tropopause.14-2
The power output of a piston engine is measured in horsepower and is determined primarily by r.p.m. and manifold pressure. The power of a turboprop engine, however, is measured in shaft horsepower (shp). Shaft horsepower is determined by the r.p.m. and the torque (twisting moment) applied to the propeller shaft. Since turboprop engines are gas turbine engines, some jet thrust is produced by exhaust leaving the engine. This thrust is added to the shaft horsepower to determine the total engine power, or equivalent shaft horsepower (eshp). Jet thrust usually accounts for less than 10 percent of the total engine power.
Although the turboprop engine is more complicated and heavier than a turbojet engine of equivalent size and power, it will deliver more thrust at low subsonic airspeeds. However, the advantages decrease as flight speed increases. In normal cruising speed ranges, the propulsive efficiency (output divided by input) of a turboprop decreases as speed increases.
The propeller of a typical turboprop engine is responsible for roughly 90 percent of the total thrust under sea level conditions on a standard day. The excellent performance of a turboprop during takeoff and climb is the result of the ability of the propeller to accelerate a large mass of air while the airplane is moving at a relatively low ground and flight speed. “Turboprop,” however, should not be confused with “turbosupercharged” or similar terminology. All turbine engines have a similarity to normally aspirated (non-supercharged) reciprocating engines in that maximum available power decreases almost as a direct function of increased altitude.
Although power will decrease as the airplane climbs to higher altitudes, engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption (expressed as pounds of fuel consumed per horsepower per hour) will be increased. Decreased specific fuel consumption plus the increased true airspeed at higher altitudes is a definite advantage of a turboprop engine.
All turbine engines, turboprop or turbojet, are defined by limiting temperatures, rotational speeds, and (in the case of turboprops) torque. Depending on the installation, the primary parameter for power setting might be temperature, torque, fuel flow or r.p.m. (either propeller r.p.m., gas generator (compressor) r.p.m. or both). In cold weather conditions, torque limits can be exceeded while temperature limits are still within acceptable range. While in hot weather conditions, temperature limits may be exceeded without exceeding torque limits. In any weather, the maximum power setting of a turbine engine is usually obtained with the throttles positioned somewhat aft of the full forward position. The transitioning pilot must understand the importance of knowing and observing limits on turbine engines. An overtemp or overtorque condition that lasts for more than a very few seconds can literally destroy internal engine components.
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